Meaning of Nutrition

Nutrition means Nutrition is the process of the scientific study of the dietary foods served by us and the use of the body according to its requirements. Undernutrition, balanced diet, nutritional elements, functions of food, post-digestion of food, use of food in the body, correlation of food and diseases, economic, social and psychological effects of diet, etc. are all important topics undernutrition and its types of nutrition. Under Nutrition, Nutrition is mainly the concept of a nutritious diet, digestion in the body and absorption of the sap after digestion, its use in the body, etc. Complete physical and mental health is achieved through nutrition.

nutrition diet

Types of nutrition

A. Nutrition:

The condition of nutrition when a person gets all the nutrients he needs in proper quantity through food is called nutrition.

B. Malnutrition-

The condition of nutrition when a person either gets fewer nutrients than he needs or gets more nutrients than he needs is called malnutrition. Malnutrition includes both undernutrition and excessive nutrition.

C. Undernutrition-

The condition of malnutrition in which the nutritional properties and quantity are not sufficient for the body, ie deficiency of one or more nutrients is called undernutrition. Physical and mental development stops when this type of nutrition is given for a long time. Such as iron deficiency anemia.

D. Excessive nutrition – A condition in which the nutritional properties and quantity exceed the requirement is called excessive nutrition


Nutrition and its other Necessary Types of nutrition


Types of nutrition

Just as living energy performs different actions by energy, similarly different types of nutrition are also required by living beings. On this need of living beings, the following types of nutrition are: –

  • Protein
  • Vitamin
  • Mineral
  • Carbohydrate
  • Fat
  • Water
  • Zinc

The word Nutrition originated from the word Nutrition. A nutrient is a substance which every organism receives from its environment and uses it for bio-synthesis of sources of energy or physical components.

  1. Protein

Protein is the most desired nutrition by organisms. Protein has many advantages and disadvantages. With the help of protein, the damage done in the body can be completed. Its main function is to fight diseases and repair and manufacture.

If one gram of protein is taken, it gives 4 calories in a total of 1 gram of protein. 600 protein calories are needed by normal human beings every day.

  1. Vitamins and Minerals

While proteins do the repair work in the body, vitamins and minerals look at the functioning of the body and help the body to run smoothly. If vitamins and minerals are not kept in the food then it is not called balanced food.

There are many types of vitamins: – Vitamin A, B, C, D, E, etc. Each type of vitamin has a different function like vitamin A is used for the eyes and it helps in curing a disease called night blindness.

Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K make fat. That is, they are very helpful in building and growing muscles.

At the same time, vitamin C, B, are aquatic vitamins, that is, they are helpful for purity and formation of blood. They are aquatic, so they do not stay in the body for long and it is very important to keep taking them from time to time.

  1. Carbohydrate

Carbohydrate is the most important nutrient among all nutrients because it provides instant energy to the body. Carbohydrates also make up the lack of water in the body because oxygen and hydrogen are present in them as much as water and the surprising factor is that the ratio of oxygen and hydrogen present is the same as water.

Carbohydrate is one of the main sources of energy and the body can almost stop functioning if it is not consumed in food.

A normal human needs 225 to 335 grams of carbohydrate every day and if counted in calories, it provides about nine hundred to thirteen hundred calories.

  1. Fat

Fat is necessary for many main functions in our body. It works right from providing energy, to storing energy.

Sources of Fat

healthy fat

Fat is present in almost all the foods that contain carbohydrates and its functions are almost the same as carbohydrates.

The main sources of fat are:

  •  milk products
  • meat, dry fruits
  • green vegetables.

Methods of nutrition and its types

On the basis of the availability of food items, organisms can be divided into two groups-

A. Autotrophic nutrition:

Under this type of nutrition, the organism produces its own food. Autotrophic nutrition is found in all green plants, blue-green algae, some bacteria, and most unicellular organisms. Organisms nourishing in this way are called autotrophs.

B. Heterotrophic nutrition:

In this type of nutrition, organisms are not able to synthesize (manufacture) their food, but they get it from other organisms. This type of nutrition is found in all animals, fungi and some unicellular organisms. Organisms nourishing in this way are called heterotrophs.


Types of nutrition in plants

nutrition in plants

1.Macronutrient elements:

Under the long-term nutrient comes the nutrients that plants require in large amounts. It consists of 10 elements. These are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sulfur.

2. Micronutrient elements:

Under this comes nutrients that plants require in small quantities. The number of micronutrients is 8. These are iron, zinc, copper, nickel, manganese, boron, molybdenum and chlorine.

3. Critical elements:

Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are deficient in most soils. Therefore, to increase the fertility of the land, these elements are added as manure. For this reason, these three elements (N, P, and K) are called revolutionary elements. The following elements have an important role in the nutrition of plants –

4. Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen:

Plants take them from the atmosphere and water as per their requirement. Carbon is taken as carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and with its help, the plant makes its food by performing photosynthesis. Oxygen is used in the respiration of living cells. These three elements play an important role in the formation of plant cell and organisms.

5. Nitrogen:

Plants get this from the atmosphere. These elements are mainly responsible for the formation of protein and nucleic acid in plants. Due to its deficiency, the growth of plants is stopped, while in excess, the flowers in the plants grow late.

6. Sulfur:

This element plays a major role in the formation of plant proteins and organisms. Due to lack of this element, the leaves of trees and plants become yellow and fruits do not form in the plant. This element encourages vegetative growth of plants. It builds root and stimulates seed formation. It helps in the formation of knots in the roots of pulses.

7. Phosphorus:

This element is found in nucleic acids and phospholipid substances. This element has a very important role in the creation of cells and the maturity of crops.

8. Potassium:

Potassium element plays an important role in plant growth. Lack of this causes a blight on the leaves, which hinders the process of protein synthesis.

9. Calcium:

It is helpful in combining DNA and RNA with proteins, the formation of chromosomes (property formula), synthesis of fat, transport of carbohydrates and amino acids. Due to its deficiency, some plants do not produce seeds and green chlorides do not function properly.

10. Magnesium:

This element has an important role in photosynthesis. It combines with chlorophyll and contributes significantly to

protein synthesis. Due to the lack of magnesium in the plants, they become yellow, which is called Chlorosis.

11. Iron:

This element plays an important role in respiratory activity in plants. It also plays an important role in Kreb’s Cycle. It is found in plant organisms and chromatic. Lack of iron in plants leads to chlorosis or greenness.

12. Manganese:

In plants, this element is required in the manufacture of chlorophyll. It plays an important role in making nitrate from nitrite. Due to its deficiency, the leaves of plants turn brown.

13. Copper:

It is present in enzymes used in respiration. Lack of it causes Chlorosis in plants.

14. Zinc:

Due to the lack of this element, the growth in plant length stops and the plants become a dwarf. Simultaneously, the fruit is not able to grow and the leaves of plants remain small. It is useful in the synthesis of Indole Acetic Acid or IAA.

15. Boron:

It is mainly helpful in the translocation of sugars. The shoot tip of the plant is destroyed due to its deficiency.

16. Molybdenum:

it is a metabolite of nitrogen in the mainland


Types of nutrition in animals

nutrition in animals

Animals need readymade food, so they eat food from plants or organisms and get food. For example, a snake eats frogs, insects eat dead bodies of animals and birds eat insects.

A. Nutritional system

The process of taking food by an organism is called ‘Modes of Nutrition’. There are two types of nutrition system:

1) Autotrophic

2) Heterotrophic

B. Host nutrition system

Not all organisms are able to make their own food with simple inorganic materials, such as carbon dioxide and water. They depend on other organisms for their food. This type of nutritional system is called the ‘host nutrition system’ and the organisms that depend on other organisms or plants for food are called ‘host’. Animals depend on other organisms or plants for their food, as they cannot produce their own food, hence they are called ‘heterotrophs’. Non-Green Plants like humans, dog, cat, deer, cow, the lion as well as yeast are the host.

Types of the host nutrition system

host nutrition system

There are three types of heterotrophic nutrition system:

i) Saprotrophic nutrition

ii) Parasitic nutrition

iii) Holozoic nutrition

i. Saprotrophic nutrition

The Greek word ‘sapro’ means ‘rotten’ or ‘dead’. Those organisms that get their food from dead and rotten inorganic substances are called ‘dead animals’. These organisms get their food from the deadwood, rotten leaves of dead plants, dead organisms, etc.

Fungi and many other bacteria/bacteria are only ‘dead’. These living organisms turn complex inorganic materials from dead substances into simple inorganic materials. Later the dead organisms absorb these simple inorganic substances.

ii. Parasitic nutrition

The organisms that keep their food in contact with other organisms are called ‘parasites’. The organism from which the parasites take their food is called ‘Hosts’. Parasitic organisms consume the organic matter present in the body of the host organism as their food.

Parasitic organisms, which can be any plant or animal, do not kill the host organism but they do harm to them. Many types of fungi, bacteria/bacteria and plants like Amarbel and animals like Plasmodium are found in a parasitic type of nutrition.

iii. Full feeding

In the form of complete host/animal nutrition, organisms consume food in solid form. Their food can be anything from plant products or animal products. In this nutrition, the organism ingests and digests complex organic matter in its body, which is absorbed by its body cells. Energy is digested within the cells to obtain digested food. The non-absorbed substance is removed by the organism’s body through the action of Egestion. Full bovine / zoological nutrition is found in humans, dogs, bears, giraffes, frogs, etc.

Animals are divided into the following three types depending on their food habits:

food habits

i) Herbivores

ii) Carnivores

iii) Omnivores

I. Vegetarian

Vegetarian are animals that take their food from plants or their products, such as leaves, fruits, etc. Examples of vegetarian animals are cow, goat, camel, deer, sheep, etc.

II. Non-vegetarian

Non-vegetarians are animals that get their food by eating only the flesh of other animals. Lions, tigers, frogs, lizards, etc. are examples of carnivorous animals.

III. Omnivores

Omnivores are animals that get their food by eating both the plants and the flesh of other animals. Dogs, humans, bears, birds, crow, etc. are examples of omnivores.

Different stages of nutrition system in animals

The following five stages of the nutritional system are found in animals:

nutritional system

1) Ingestion

2) Digestion

3) Absorption

4) Assimilation

5) Egestion

  1. Ingestion

The process of transporting food inside the body ie the alimentary canal is called ‘ingestion’. This is the first stage of the food processor.

2. Digestion

The process of converting solid, complex and large insoluble food particles into a liquid, simple, and small soluble particles with the help of many enzymes and through various chemical and physical processes is called ‘digestion’. This is the second phase of the food processor.

The physical activities of digestion include chewing and mixing food inside the mouth, while the mixture of different digestive juices by the body in the food is called the chemical process of digestion.

3. Absorption

When food particles become small, they enter the blood passing through the wall of the intestine (Intestine). This process is called absorption. This is the third stage of the food processor.

4. Disorganization

The absorption of food reaching every part of the body and every cell and producing energy for the growth and repair of the body is called ‘disorganization’. This is the fourth stage of the food processor.

5. Exclusion

The process of exit of the body by anal (anal) route of unfermented food in the form of feces is called ‘exclusion’. This is the last and fifth stage of the food processor.

What is the requirement of nutrition for the body?

The actions that any living being needs to do to survive and nutrition are required to perform those activities.

 Following are the functions of nutrition and types of nutrition: –

 functions of nutrition

Energy: – Most of the work of giving energy to nutrition. Is No person can survive without giving energy without nutrition.

Body repair: – The second function of nutrition is to repair the body. The way you see the fuel poured into the machine only drives it, while the fuel absorbed for the energy in the body not only gives energy but also compensates the body.

Digestive control: – Nutrients are very much helpful in running the body’s functioning smoothly. They keep healthy from the digestive system to the heart system.

How much nutrition is required per day?

Nutrition needs depend on the individual person. If a person’s body is healthy, he will require relatively less nutrition, while if a person is ill, he will demand more nutrition.

On the other hand, if someone is young, then that person will take a balanced diet, while more nutrition is required in childhood and less in old age.

In general, you need different nutrition on the following parameters.

different nutrition

Protein: – Protein is required in a total of 64 grams of liquids and almost the same in solids. Significantly, with this much protein, you get a total of 256 calories and a total of 600 calories of protein is required throughout the day.

Carbohydrate: – Carbohydrate needs is around 900 to 1300 calories, if you eat more then it should be 45% to 65% of your total food.

Mineral: – It should be 50% of the total food.

Vitamins: – The requirement of vitamins depends on your composition. 55% of the total food is required to be a vitamin. Do not consume more than 10 grams of vitamin B.

Fat: – Determination of fat depends on carbohydrates. If carbohydrates are low, keep fat high.

Zinc: – 10-20 percent of zinc is beneficial for health. If more zinc is consumed than this, it can work in a harmful direction.

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