Concept of Diabetes mellitus type 2
Diabetes mellitus type 2 – previously called “non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)” or “diabetes starting in adulthood” – is a metabolic disorder, which has high blood in terms of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency Glucose.
It is contrary to diabetes mellitus type 1, in which there is a shortage of insulin due to the disintegration of islet cells in the pancreas. Thirst for excess, Door-time urine loss and persistent loss of appetite are some Citpricit symptoms.
90 percent of diabetes cases are of type 2 diabetes whereas the remaining 10 percent are primarily diabetes mellitus type 1 and pregnancy diabetes. Obesity is considered the main cause of type 2 diabetes among people more susceptible to genetically diagnosed disease.
The initial management of diabetes type 2 is done by increasing exercise and dietary improvement. If these measures do not adequately reduce the amount of blood glucose, medications like metformin insulin may be needed. Those people who are on insulin need regular checkup of blood sugar levels.
Diabetes mellitus symptoms
Polyurethane (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased Haiyan appetite) and weight loss are chromatic symptoms of diarrhea.
Other symptoms that are included during diagnosis include staining, itching, peripheral neuropathy, Frequent vaginal infection, and fatigue include many people in the first few years there are no symptoms and their diagnosis occurs during regular testing.
Ti 2 diabetes suffer from mellitus occasionally Nonaketotik Haiprosmolr coma (a state which can be very high blood sugar) with the level decreased consciousness and low blood pressure.
- Type 2 diabetes is usually a complicated disease, in which the probability of life decreases by 10 years.
- This is partly due to the many complications which are associated with it, in which: heart disease is two to four times Risk, which includes spatial cardiovascular disease and stroke, involves the risk of a 20-fold increase in limb dissection in the lower limb and hospitalization rate.
- In the developed world and in other places, type 2 diabetes, c. Non-traumatic blindness and bad failure are the major causes.
- It is associated with an increased risk of cognitive disease and dementia through Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia.
- Among other complications: acethenesis nigracans (joint and twist) In areas of skin, thickness in the color of the skin), sexual disorder and frequent infections.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 symptoms
one common belief is that people with obesity are more likely to suffer from diabetes, but a study done on the Indian people has shown that even lean people with normal weight can also be suffering from type 2 diabetes.
- In Western countries, people with diabetes usually have more weight and obesity. At the same time, 20 to 30 percent of diabetic patients in India are not fat, but they are also included among the extremely lean men. This new study has now broken the myth that only obesity can lead to diabetes.
- Type II diabetes occurs with the resistance of insulin. Insulin sends hormone signals to remove glucose from the bloodstream and set them into cells.
- When the muscles present in the body, fat, and liver give resistance against these signals then the situation of insulin resistance arises.
- Diabetes occurs only with insulin resistance, which is called Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) or T2 DM in the doctoral language.
Type 2 diabetes causes
Vitamin C supplements can help diabetics that reduce blood glucose levels throughout the day. This has been found in a study.
The fact is that physical activity, good nutrition, and diabetes medicines are very important for standard care and type-2 diabetes mellitus in adults, some people with medication may also have their blood glucose levels Managing the level can be difficult.
It is a matter of note that one out of every four people (25.3 percent) who are suffering from diabetes in India have type 2 diabetes, type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes diagnosis
The definition of the World Health Organization’s diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) is for once raised glucose readings with symptoms, or one of the values raised on the following two occasions:
Fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol / l (126 mg / dl)
Glucose tolerance test, which is two hours after the oral dose of plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol / l (200 mg/dl)
Random blood sugar, which is more than 11.1 mmol / l (200 mg / dL), as well as specific symptoms or more than 6.5% of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is another method of diagnosis of diabetes.
In 2009, an international expert committee consisting of representatives of the American Diabetes Association (IDA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), recommended that the range of ≥6.5% HbA1c to diagnose diabetes Use it Or should be.
- This recommendation was adopted by the American Diabetes Association in 2010. Positive tests should be repeated until the person has common symptoms and blood sugar> 11.1 mmol / l (> 200 mg/dl) in the amount.
- The range of glucose tolerance tests for diabetes is based on the relationship between complications like fasting glucose or HbA1c and retinal related problems.
- Fasting or random blood sugar is preferred over glucose tolerance test because they are more Convenient.
- The advantage of HbA1c is that fasting is not needed and the results are more permanent, but the defects are That test is more expensive than blood sugar measurement. It is estimated that 20% of people with diabetes in the United States are not diagnosed with the disease.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is recognized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and related insulin.
It is in contrast to diabetes mellitus type 1, in which the complete insulin decreases due to the disintegration of islet cells in pancreatitis and pregnancy diabetes.
Which is the new beginning of high blood sugar associated with pregnancy?
Presentation of circumstances in type 1 and type 2 diabetes Areas can be distinguished by. The antibodies may be useful in testing, type 1 diabetes and C- peptide levels in type 2 confirmed diabetes If suspicious of any kind of diagnosis.
Type 2 diabetes treatment
- No major organization recommends universal screening for diabetes because there is no evidence that such a program would be able to outgrow the results.
- Adults with no symptoms who have blood pressure greater than 135/80 mmHg include United The States recommend Preventive Task Force investigation.
- Those who have low blood pressure, it is clear that the side of the investigation or the recommendation in the opposition is more There is evidence of evidence.
- The World Health Organization recommends an investigation into only those groups with high risk.
- High-risk groups in the United States include Those whose age is over 45, they Some of the ethnic groups in which Hispanic, African-American and Native Americans, including those with gestational diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, There is a history of weight surplus and those related to the conditions related to the iliac syndrome.
Type 2 diabetes prevention
The beginning of type 2 diabetes can be delayed or stopped through proper nutrition and regular exercise. Lifestyle serious remedies can reduce their risk. The initial weight and exercise are unaffected by decreased weight.
The only evidence of profit from dietary changes are limited, however, Certain evidence of an excess of the diet of green leafy vegetables There is some evidence of the benefits of restricting drinks to sugar drinkers.
Those who have weak glucose tolerant, diet alone and exercise or combination with metformin or Acerbos can reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Lifestyle interventions are more effective than metaphors.
Surgical management of diabetes mellitus
- Management of type 2 diabetes focuses on lifestyle interventions, reducing the other cardiovascular risk factors and maintaining blood glucose in a normal range.
- In 2008, the British National Health Service self-monitoring blood glucose for those people. Suggesting a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, although many people who use multi-dose insulin should be tested on the benefits of self-monitoring.
- The management of other cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and microelbuminuriacia increases the likelihood of a person’s life.
- However, standard blood pressure management (140-160 / 85-100 mmHg) Unlike severe blood pressure management (less than 130/80 mmHg), the risk of the trip slightly reduces but does not affect the overall risk of death.
Unlike severe blood glucose reduction (HbA1C of 7-7.9%), reducing serious blood sugar (HbA1C <6%) does not seem to make a difference in mortality.   The goal of treatment is usually to reduce the HbA1C to 7% Reduce or Value of Fasting Glucose 6.7 mmo.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 icd 10
In a person with type 2 diabetes, the body is unable to use insulin properly and this condition is called insulin resistance. The pancreas or pancreas first creates additional insulin for it. However, over time, it does not make enough to keep blood sugar at a normal level. Some triggers may be predetermined for this condition genetically.
- People with obesity family history are at risk of developing insulin resistance and diabetes. Those who are obese, pressure on the ability to use insulin to control Lifestyle factors also have a major role in it.
- Some of them include thirst and increase in appetite, frequent urination, loss of weight, fatigue, blurred vision, infection and wounds, and some areas include blackening of the skin.
- A healthy diet is usually more expensive than an unhealthy diet. There is a need to increase the availability of foods that reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes like vegetables, fresh fruits, whole grains, and unsaturated fats and reduce the prices.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 – Epidemiology
In 2010, it was estimated that 285 million people had type 2 diabetes, which was 90% of total diabetes cases. It is about 6% of the world’s adult population. Diabetes is a developing and developing world, Both are common. However, it is not common in the underdeveloped world.
In some ethnic groups, women are in high-risk situations, such as South Asians, Pacific Islanders, Latinos, and Native Americans.
- In some ethnic groups, this may be due to increased sensitivity towards the western lifestyle. Traditionally, type 2 diabetes, which is considered as a disease of adults, is increasing in diagnosis in children, which is parallel to the increase in rates of obesity. In the United States, type 2 diabetes is often diagnosed as type 1 diabetes in adolescents.
- The number of diabetic victims in 1985 was estimated at 30 million, which increased to 135 million in 1995 and 217 million in 2005.
- It is believed that this increase is mainly due to increase in age, decrease in exercise and obesity in the global form.
- The rate of growth is due to increase. The five countries where most patients with diabetes in 2000 were: India 31.7 million, China 20.8 million, United States 17.7 million, Indonesia 8.4 million and Japan 6.8 million.
- This has been recognized by the World Health Organization as a global epidemic.
History of Diabetes mellitus type 2
Diabetes is one of the first diseases that describes c. In the Egyptian manuscript of BCE 1500, “excessive urinary extinguishment” has been done. ” It is believed that the previously described cases are of Type 1 diabetes.
- About this time, Indian physicians also identified this disease. And classified it as “diabetes” or “honey urine” after seeing it that the cheetahs were being collected near the patient’s urine. The word “diabetes” or “passing” First 230 BCE Greek polymorphus was used by Memphis.
- This disease was very rare during the Roman Empire and Galen said that he had seen only two people suffering from Ace disease during his entire career.
- Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes were first identified by Indian physician Sushruta and Charak in 400-500 AD, of which Type 1 was related to youth and type 2 was related to excess weight.
- The word “Mellitus” or “honey” The first was used by Brinton John Roll to differentiate from the Diabetes Inspiridus at the end of 1700, which is related to frequent urinary excretion.
- An effective treatment developed up to the early part of the twentieth century. Could be not. When Canadian Frederick Banting and Charles Best discovered insulin in 1921 and 1922.  Long-term effective NPH insulin was developed in 1940.
Type 2 diabetes
People with type 2 diabetes have a high level of blood sugar, which is very difficult to control. In this situation, the sufferer feels more thirsty, there are problems like frequent urination and frequent hunger.
It can happen to anyone, but it is seen more in children. In type 2 diabetes, the body is unable to use insulin properly.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes
- Due to this, increasing the level of blood sugar in the body causes fatigue, less appearance, and headache. Since the fluid gets excessive in the body, the patient gets more thirsty.
- If there is no injury or injury, it does not heal quickly.
- The effect of continuing to remain more and more of diabetes falls on the eyesight, due to which there is a disease called diabetic retinopathy, which reduces the viscosity of the eyes.
Type 2 diabetes prevention
Insulin is given to prevent diabetes. Insulin is a kind of hormone which is very useful for our body. Insulin provides blood sugar only through insulin, i.e. insulin acts to transfer sugar to other parts of the body.
Rates of diabetes have increased parallel to the rate of obesity in the last 50 years. About 285 million people are suffering from this disease in 2010, while in 1985 their number was approximately 30 million.
In the long-term complications of high blood sugar, cardiovascular disease, seizures, diabetes retinopathy in which the eye-to-eye ability effects, kidney failure in which dialysis may be required and due to poor transmission of limbs, organ dissection can be involved.
However, the quality of diabetes type 1, which is a serious complication of the excessive ketone body, is uncommon. [4However, non-acetic hypothermia can be harmful.
Q1. Can diabetes mellitus type 2 be cured?
You can stop these risks yourself – some of the lifestyle changes can make you a victim of this disease. So stay away from them –
- Drink cigarettes
- Overweight or obese
- Exercise reduction
- Processed meat, fat, dessert, and red meat eating
- Triglyceride level is more than 250 mg/dl 6 HDL cholesterol levels are considered good below 35 mg/dl.
Q2. What are the first signs of type 2 diabetes?
Everyone needs to know some symptoms of diabetes. Many of these are mango-like symptoms, on which if you focus on taking time, this disease can be controlled. Below we are telling you the symptoms of some such sugar.
- Frequent urination
- Complaining of frequent body pain
- Frequent infection in the skin and private parts or cavity
- Do not quickly fill the wound.
- Throat drying or thirsty again
- Weak eyesight
- Overweight or decreased weight
- The feeling of constant fatigue or weakness
- Excessive appetite
- Irritability in practice.
If you have any symptoms of diabetes in your body, then check your diabetes once. Now we know why there is sugar.
Q3. What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus – There are two types of diabetes – type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the formation of insulin decreases or the insulin becomes stopping, and it can be controlled to a great extent. While people with Type 2 diabetes have a high level of blood sugar, which is very difficult to control.
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are not the same, there is a lot of difference between these two. Understand the difference between the two in the next slideshow.